Evidentiality the Linguistic Coding of Epistemology Advances in Discourse Processes – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. EVIDENTIALLY: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology edited by Wallace Chafe University of California, Santa Barbara Johanna Nichols University of California. With the Future Behind Them: Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time.

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I would urge caution in this matter, which has yet to be adequately studied. In describing Algonquian Menomini, Leonard Bloomfield Morris Swadesh was a student of Sapir’s who collaborated closely with him in the analysis and description of Nootka.

The Philosophy of Grammar. The forms at the head end of arrows and most full word and sentence examples are in a surface phonemic representation.

Catalog Record: Evidentiality : the linguistic coding of | Hathi Trust Digital Library

Inference seems to lie at a borderline stage leading out of the domain of direct personal evidence, attested by its co-occurrence as either Inferential I or II with the Quotative. With our final formative suffix, -pal, we are scraping the bottom of the barrel in eistemology search for evidentials.

Thus, someone speaking of an act he himself is performing, or has performed, would not normally attribute knowledge of that event to a lower type of evidence, unless, of course, he is speaking in a detached way as an observer of his own actions.

Campbell, Lyle, and Marianne Ccoding, eds. Speculation has been expressed that the evidentials described for northern California Pomoan and Wintun and the Northwest Coast Makah in this volume might point to wvidentiality widespread areal 3 One western European language that does have an evidential marker is Basque, with a particle omen emen, Roncalese emon, Vizcayan ei that is a sort of impersonal quotative or generalized inferential meaning ‘reportedly’, ‘as they say’, ‘it seems’, as in etorri omen da ‘he is said to have come, he seems to have come’ cf.


Four possible sources of evidential information are suggested: Rather, evidential status of the predicate is indicated by co-opting available morphological pieces of susceptible semantics e. The Makah -t in -wa: Separate different tags with a comma. I characterize the evidentuality of the epiwtemology suffixes and clitics as well as I can, given the available data, and also provide morphological analyses where appropriate.

The Problem of knowledge. Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Handbook of American Indian languages, Part 1.

Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology (Advances in Discourse Processes) (v. 20)

In fact the constraint is stronger than this; as well as having a first person subject, the verb must also be a -k verb if it is to be marked with -k’yuu or k’a.

Thus 1 and 12 can be interpreted as either completed or ongoing.

The cognate sets are given in Oswalt The most fruitful approach to take in interpreting the Patwin data is historical. Kenneth Whistler describes evidentiality in Patwin, another Northern California language.

Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology

The University of Melbourne. Evidentials occur in both groups, although the suffixes that are clearly specialized as evidentials evidenfiality to the latter group, and are in paradigmatic relationship to other suffixes with a modal value.

The speaker does not claim to coxing any knowledge of or be an authority on what he is discussing, and thus need not indicate the source of his information. Originally, mut must have been a full, subordinating verb, but at some point in the history of Wintun it was syntagmatically reanalyzed as a verb suffix in the evidential construction. Evidentials, in other words, are not a morphologically unitary or distinct category in Makah.


If there is, it follows the evidential suffixes. The zero-marked irrealis takes stem IVa of the verb.

Others are innately perfective and refer to a -: In 11 the verb is puy-k ‘die’ death is real only when someone has died ; on the other hand, in 1 the verb is iima-k ‘dance’ the moment one has taken even one step, the dancing is real. Carlson and Thomas Note that all of these uses can be glossed roughly as ‘must be’ or ‘must have been’—the implication is that there is sufficient evidence for making a claim, but that it is not directly from vision or other senses.

Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology – Google Books

The Kashaya language, which is so rich in suffixes for the means by which evidence is obtained, is, in common with the other Pomoan languages, even richer in prefixes for the means by which an action is done: Borchardt Library, Melbourne Bundoora Campus. Available Makah examples describe the quality of the dream: Clearly, however, such data are suspect for making fine-tuned judgments about the semantics and pragmatics of evidentials in Patwin.

Grammar and lexicon of thebthi Hill Patwin. Even interrogative formations could be mentioned here, indicating as they do the complete absence of information on a given point. Linguistic reflection of Wintu thought.